Examinando por Autor "Urrea Restrepo, Lina Marcela"
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- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoCaracterización del desempeño de los procesos cognitivos atención, memoria y funciones ejecutivas en niños y niñas víctimas de maltrato físico o negligencia, en edades entre 8 a 12 años, que se encuentren vinculados al ICBF(2014) Urrea Restrepo, Lina Marcela; Arango, Magda LorenaChild abuse is defined as any physical, emotional, sexual, abandonment, negligence, exploitation (commercial, etc.) that produces any real or potential damage to children(under eighteenyears old) health, developmentor dignity, under the context of a relationship based on responsibility, trust or power. It’s worth mentioning that the present project takes into consideration abusedefined as any non accidental action that causes any disease or physical damage to a minor under eighteen years of age, and negligence as it is defined as any act of omission of the minors basic needs, both physical and emotional, by theircaretaker, parents or responsible adult, where kids could suffer the aftermath in an emotional and neuropsychological level. It has been demonstrated in previous investigations such as the one by Patricia Mesa (2011),where she statesthat children that suffer some kind of abuse have a high percentage ofsuffering some kind of behavioralor emotional disorders such as anxiety or depression. At a neurobiological level,it has been demonstrated that there is traumatichead injury, subdural hematomaand elevated intracranial pressure amongst others. It’s relevant to bring into collation thatthis investigation will also take three neuropsychological processes into consideration: memory, attention and executive functions.Memory is the capacity of storing information so that later on it can be accessed and recuperated making way for learning and adaptation; the structures that intervene in this process are the cortical structures such as the cerebral lobes and the sub cortical structures like the amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellum and the basal ganglia. On anotherpoint, attention is the capacity of selecting sensorial information by activating and inhibiting environmentalstimulation, the structuresthat compose this process are the pre frontal cortex, post parietal cortex, fusiform gyrusand the reticular substance. Lastly,executive functions are a set of cognitive abilities that allow the establishment of structured thinking, control, strategic planes, amongst others;this superior process is mediated by the frontal lobe, specially the pre-frontal cortex. It’s necessary to specify, that the subjectsof study arebetween the ages of eight and twelve andthatthe cognitiveprocesses mentioned above wereevaluation through the battery Neuropsychological Assessment Of Children (ENI), due to the fact that theyare of grand importance for the learning processes. According to this evaluation, it can be concluded that the boys and girls that were victims of physical abuse had a better performance in memory tests of visual codification, deferred evocationmemory for both auditory and visual stimuli, and lastly in executive functions, while the boys and girls that were victims of abuse by negligence had a better performance in the attention tests.