F1FAA. Maestría en Bioclimática
URI permanente para esta colección
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoPropuesta de una metodología para la optimización multi-objetivo de estrategias bioclimáticas en edificaciones a través de modelos paramétricos(2020)Confront scenarios in which it is required to satisfy multiple objectives simultaneously and in an antagonistic nature, is a common scenario in decision-making processes on the application of bioclimatic strategies to buildings. It is here where multi-objective optimization methodologies offer a way to manage these scenarios, increasing the rate of application and effectiveness of the implemented strategies, in favor of people's comfort and reduction of energy consumption. The present research proposes a methodology for the multiobjective optimization of bioclimatic strategies through parametric models. To achieve this, it uses computational simulations connected to a centralized model in Rhinoceros3D, parameterized through Grasshopper in connection with the Ladybug and Honeybee plugins, whose results were optimized using the Octopus plugin. 48 possible configurations were analyzed, in 3 different spaces of an educational building located in the city of Medellín, adopting as evaluation criteria the thermal performance, light, solar exposure, quality views and economic investment. The proposed methodology was compared with the traditional way in which a bioclimatic assessment is carried out, identifying differences, possibilities and challenges. It was found that it is possible to make decisions in a design process from a broader approach to the phenomena, with more diverse and detailed results. At the same time, the modeling and simulation times were shortened, increasing the effectiveness to apply bioclimatic strategies adjusted to the particularities of each project.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoBioclimática de fachadas perforadas realizadas con materiales y técnicas autóctonas del pacífico colombiano, caso de estudio de vivienda en Quibdó(2020)In areas with a humid tropical climate, ventilation is essential to achieve thermal comfort inside the houses, the temperature and relative humidity must be controlled through the materiality of the facades used, there are areas of the tropics that still preserve ancestral customs to build their homes with good thermal results; This research addressed the study of indigenous techniques and materials used by the inhabitants of the Colombian Pacific for the elaboration of their enclosures or housing enclosures in Afro-descendant and indigenous cultures. The objective was to scientifically evaluate how three (3) vegetable fibers used as perforated facades in traditional houses in the Colombian Pacific behave; The indigenous culture uses fibers from Iraca Carludovica palmata (Ruiz & Pav). As a protection curtain against solar rays, the Afro-descendant culture uses the fiber of plantain or platanillo; A third fiber used by the two cultures is the palm or chonta Iriartea deltoidea (Ruiz & Pav), used in the construction of facades for their homes. This research was based on laboratory studies carried out at the Universidad de Nacional, Medellín, real house study and simulations in DesingBuilder and AutoDesk software, for which we used a soundproof camera, a wind tunnel and Dataloger type sensors to obtain temperature data, relative humidity, lighting, a sound level meter to measure sound pressure and videos for the qualitative analysis of the air flow of each fiber. After the analysis and simulations, the palm presented the best performance, achieving a reduction of 2.4 ° C in temperature and 18.25 dBA as sound insulating fiber; Additionally, it was evidenced that a 1m2 of construction in palm costs 50% less than in concrete block and its carbon footprint is 95% lower.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoLa vivienda vernácula en madera en el páramo de la cordillera central de los andes colombianos y la sensación térmica de sus ocupantes(2019)The path of humankind through the face of the earth has left countless teachings about how they occupy the territory and inhabits the space, and it is there, where science should focus the study of the peoples multiple migrations, in order to identify the customs, habits and lifestyles that affected the way of building cities and particularly their homes. According to the above, this document seeks to analyze the thermal behavior of three houses built with wood, its thermal sensation, and the customs of its inhabitants in two seasons of the year mainly: dry season and rainy season. For this, a descriptive investigation was carried out where the characteristic habits of the population of Murillo (Tolima) are described through the application of the method of scientific observation, where the thermal sensation perceived by the inhabitants of the homes under study were considered, and the different variables that affected thermal comfort within the spaces. Finally, it is defined that the thermal comfort perceived by the inhabitants corresponds to the use of wood as a constructive element, which is closely related to the garments they wear every day and the type of food they consume in the Moorland area of the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoIncidencia del porcentaje de abertura de las ventanas en la ventilación natural y el ruido de fondo en tres tipos diferentes de aulas de básica primaria en Medellín, Colombia(2019)This study was made in Colombia, a country located in the intertropical convergence zone, characterized by warm and humid winds, coming from the northern and southern latitudes. Colombia’s weather, despite being highly torrid, due to the perpendicularity of the sun’s rays, has a large number of thermal floors that make the climate fluctuate, due to its location near the Andes Mountain Arange. This study was developed specifically in the city of Medellín, located at 6.25° of the northern latitude he study was developed specifically in the city of Medellín, located at 6.25° of the northern latitude, with an average height of 1495 meters above sea level and with a hot sub-Andean humid climate (Narváez-Bravo & León-Aristizábal, 2001). These are important characteristics that should be taken into consideration for the measurement of the environment in the primary school classrooms considered in this study. 3 types of primary school classrooms were evaluated in the city of Medellín for this study: 1) square; 2) rectangular with openings on wide side; and 3) rectangular with openings on its short side. The names of these last two are rectangular and deep rectangular, respectively, which must comply with the Colombian Technical Standard (NTC) 4595 (Colombian Institute of Technical Standards and Certification [ICONTEC] & Colombia, Ministry of National Education, 2015). Five aperture percentages were evaluated with respect to the span's total area: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% in three proportion types referencing its dimensions: 1:2, 1:3, and 2:3. Given 15 different cases of spans evaluated, the aperture at a 100% complies with the entrance suggested in NTC 4595 (2006). It's also the only one that adjusts with the proportions. Under NTC 4595 2015, updated from 2006, Medellin's weather doesn't fit into mild category, because its temperature ranges from 18 to a 24 °C. Neither does it fit into the warm-humid category because its humidity ranges are above 75%. Nevertheless, this inconvenient was resolved by using 1/6 of the space’s area, which is the suggested area for venting, according to NTC 4595 norm of 2006 (Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación [ICONTEC] & Colombia. Ministerio de Educación Nacional), which adjusted better to Medellin’s climate. Two models were made: 1) with the help of Autodesk CFD software (Computational Fluid Dynamics), in terms of wind; and 2) with the TL (Tansmission Loss) combined, in terms of noise. The wind and noise evaluations in the different combinations of classroom and percentage of window opening, show that: the three different classroom forms have no relationship with the ventilated area nor with the degrees of attenuation; the proportion of the span is not related to attenuation levels; and, the proportion that has greater simultaneous effects is 2: 3, with 40% opening in the square classroom
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoPropuesta de intervención de la envolvente de edificaciones existentes : caso de estudio bloque de aulas de una institución educativa(2019)High energetic demand of cities, and current needs of optimization of this resource, has let to propose different alternatives for buildings analysis and their facades and suggest the intervention of the most decisive component in the interior comfort and efficiency buildings: The Envelope. This kind of intervention can apply for new and existing buildings. This work is developed through a methodology of buildings envelope evaluation. It starts with the analysis of a case study building, in its physical context, climatic characterization, and bioclimatic needs. Subsequently, current facade system is evaluated through computational simulations. Data for this evaluation are colected in the diagnostic stage to be used in the refurbishment proposal. After implementation of the envelope, thermal and light simulations are analyzed as well as changes in both mentioned aspects. Places which the intervention contributed to improve the initial condition and places with deteriored conditions after implementation are indicated